(just published at "Dairy Science and Technology")
Evaluation of the in vitro anti-atherogenic activities of goat milk and goat dairy products
Given that goat milk and dairy products should be consumed daily according to suggestions based on Mediterranean diet, the current study evaluates the anti-atherogenic properties of goat milk and goat dairy products (yogurt and white cheese). Total lipids (TLs) of all three samples were extracted by the method of Bligh and Dyer and further separated into total polar lipids (TPLs) and total neutral lipids (TNLs) by counter current distribution. The fatty acid profiles of TPL and TNL of all three samples were determined by gas chromatography analysis. TL and TPL were tested to determine whether they induce platelet aggregation or inhibit platelet aggregation induced by the platelet-activating factor (PAF). The most active lipids were found in goat white cheese (i.e., since they showed lower IC50 values in both TL and TPL samples than corresponding fractions of goat milk and goat yogurt), so the TPL of goat white cheese were further separated by preparative thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The obtained polar lipid fractions after TLC separation were also tested for their biological activity. All the samples’ lipids, and especially the polar ones, were found to exhibit strong anti-atherogenic activities. This fact highlights the nutritional value of goat dairy products in terms of cardioprotection, as PAF is a crucial inflammatory mediator that is implicated in the mechanism of atherogenesis.