Assessment of the in Vitro Antithrombotic Properties of Sardine (Sardina pilchardus) Fillet Lipids and Cod Liver Oil
The aim of the current study was to compare the biological activities of total polar lipids (TPL) and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) polar lipid fractions of sardine fillet and cod liver oil against atherogenesis. TPL and TLC polar lipid fractions obtained from these two sources were assessed for their ability to inhibit the platelet-activating-factor (PAF)-induced platelet aggregation (PAF-antagonists) or to induce platelet aggregation (PAF-agonists), since PAF plays a crucial role in the initiation and development of atherosclerosis. This study focused on the polar lipids since previous studies have underlined that the antithrombotic properties of foodstuffs are mainly attributed to polar lipid micro-constituents. TPL of sardine fillet induced platelet aggregation, while TPL of cod liver had a bimodal effect on platelets. TLC polar lipid fractions of both samples exhibited in vitro aggregatory and inhibitory activity towards platelets. However, TLC sardine polar lipid fractions showed stronger in vitro antithrombotic activities than the cod liver oil ones. These data constitute evidence of the putative contribution of fish polar lipids against cardiovascular diseases, underling firstly the beneficial effect of fish and fish lipids as functional foodstuffs against atherogenesis and secondly the more important role of sardine polar lipids as opposed to cod liver oil.
Keywords: sardine (Sardina pilchardus); cod liver oil; antithrombotic properties; cardiovascular diseases
1 Laboratory of Food Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, School of Sciences, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens 15771, Greece 2 Department of Food Science and Nutrition, School of the Environment, University of the Aegean, Myrina Lemnos 81400, Greece 3 Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, School of Sciences, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens 15771, Greece † These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Received: 7 July 2015 / Revised: 14 September 2015 / Accepted: 17 September 2015 / Published: 28 September 2015