Monday, 31 December 2012

Happy GMO-free 2013 with nutritional and sustainable fish !

it does not matter if you have high cholesterol as long as you eat what that the Greeks or the Japanase eat ! ! !

One of the most exciting developments in 2012 was our work on fish fed with olive pomace (OP) and how this OP-fed fish compares to FO (fish oil) fish.

Well, here are some results.

In literature, there is a significant amount of work on the role of fish-derived omega 3 fatty acids PUFAs in nutrition. However, recent evidence (Rizos et al, 2012) suggests that there is no clear association of omega-3 PUFAs and CVDs. In their review, the results of 20 studies on 68.680 patients were evaluated and omega-3 PUFAs were not found to be statistically significantly associated with CVDs in various patient populations.
What is, thus, the link of omega-3 PUFAs and CVDs and how can we find novel ways to produce sustainable fish feed and thus fish with high nutritional value against CVDs?

Our work is centered on the fact that, in fish and in all food (!), it is not only the omega-3 PUFAs that “carry” substantial nutritional benefit but also other polar lipids.Therefore, research efforts in producing fish feeds and fish should not only focus on omega-3 fatty acids but also “consider” some other elements of the “wider picture”.
The basis of our concept is simple:
“The levels of saturated (especially 16:0 and 18:0), monoenes (especially 18:1 cis), n-3 (20:5 and 22:6) and n-6 (18:2) fatty acids of the fish fed with OP diet were found to statistically decrease (p < 0.05) compared to the fish fed with FO diet. However this reduction in fatty acid content in gilthead sea bream fed with olive pomace (OP) diet did not limit its biological activity. In fact, the biological activity against atheromatosis (expressed as Inhibitory Concentration for fifty percent inhibition (IC50) in mg of total lipids) of the sea bream fed with OP was found about 6 times higher than the corresponding activity of fish fed with FO diet (0.005 as opposed to 0.032). In practical terms, IC50 stands for the biological activity of the samples to inhibit by 50% the maximum reversible platelet aggregation caused by the Platelet Activating Factor (PAF) and the lower the IC50 value of a food component observed, the more potent in cardioprotective terms (against atheromatosis and the prevention of CVDs) this food component is (Nasopoulou et al., 2011).
We need to highlight here that in our work with gilthead sea bream, it was found that the fish metabolized satisfactorily OP resulting in fish with statistically significant (p < 0.05) increased (more than six times) biological activity against atheromatosis and thus improved nutritional value. It is also worthy to note that gilthead sea bream fed with OP diet had a statistically decreased content (p < 0.05) of EPA and DHA in comparison with the sea bream fed the FO diet. Thus, it could also be suggested that the cardio protective properties of the fish may not be directly linked to the fatty acid content but to the presence of lipid microconstituents originating from OP (Nasopoulou et al., 2011).
Our work is now focused towards the enrichment of fish feeds with fractions of OP which have proven antiatherogenic properties.
In this way, the novel functional fish will contain more antiatherogenic compounds and therefore protect the consumer from the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) (Nasopoulou et al. 2011).
Our scientific goal
is to prove that such enriched food is not only beneficial to protect from the development of cardiovascular diseases but also to alleviate symptoms of heart problems with people.
In this way, we could “feed” to the fish, beneficial against CVDs, OP without the need for any GM plants producing 18:3 fatty acids (Haslam et al., 2012).
A GMO-free but still sustainable fish feed and fish production line can be developped by using OP.
[more to follow in 2013]

Happy New Year!
 
May 2013 bring Excellence in Science and breaking-through innovations for producing Nutritious and Tasteful Food, affordable by all!

Yannis Zabetakis

References
1. Haslam, R.P., Ruiz-Lopez, N., Eastmond, P., Moloney, M., Sayanova, O., Napier, J.A., 2012. The modification of plant oil composition via metabolic engineering – better nutrition by design. Plant Biotech Journal (2012) 1-12.
2. Nasopoulou, C., Stamatakis, G., Demopoulos, C.A., Zabetakis, I., 2011. Effects of olive pomace and olive pomace oil on growth performance, fatty acid composition and cardio protective properties of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Food Chemistry 129, 1108-1113.
3. Rizos EC, Ntzani EE, Bika E. Kostapanos MS, Elisaf MS. 2012. Association between omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and risk of major cardiovascular disease events. A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 308(10): 1024-33.



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